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认知与发展心理学研究室2016年学术报告
作者: 认知与发展心理学研究室 ║ 日期: 2016/06/02 

  为了增进研究室各研究组之间的学术及人文交流,认知与发展心理学研究室定期举办学术报告,报告以研究组为单位,报告人不限,报告主题自选。时间基本固定为周二中午13:30-14:30,地点在南楼5层会议室。欢迎所有感兴趣的老师和同学参加!

日期

课题组

报告人

主持

题目

31

张 弢

邓 虎

王 莹

 Perceptual learning refines the representation of heading direction in Macaque VIP

315

施建农

王 迪

张兴利

 金钱奖赏和社会奖赏敏感性的发展

329

王 亮

丁金丰

李晓庆

 The influence of emotional words on prediction processing during sentence comprehension 

412

鲍 敏

董 雪

席 洁

 Habituation of Visual Adaptation 

419

严超赣

严超赣

左西年

 Concordance Among Indices of Intrinsic Brain Function: Inter-Individual Variation and Temporal Dynamics Perspective

426

李兴珊

娄 娅

杨晓虹

 Using support vector machines to identify literacy skills:Evidence from eye movements

517

左西年

张一文

严超赣

 Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairments 

524

张 弢

张 波

王 莹

 The Representation of Biological Motion in Caudal STS

68

傅小兰

周晓燕

 王 莹 

 Which Matters More in Implicit Category Learning: Contour-based Features VS. Surface-based Features

96

傅小兰

李 贺

待 定

 反馈在欺骗识别中的作用及其认知神经机制 

920

傅小兰

李慧云

待 定

 多面孔表情的平均表征 

1011

周 雯

叶玉婷

待 定

 Object-based olfactory attention modulates nostril-specific odor processing 

1025

蒋 毅

待 定

待 定

 待 定 

118

朱莉琪

待定

待 定

 待 定 

1122

杨玉芳

待 定

待 定

 待 定 

126

毕鸿燕

待 定

待 定

 待 定 

1220

刘 勋

待 定

待 定

 待 定 

 1227 

 黄昌兵

 张 盼

 张明霞

Reward and Perceptual Learning

  *报告安排如需调整请提前告知,报告信息请最迟于报告前一周的周一将发到guon@psych.ac.cn

时间:2016年6月8日,周三,下午13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:周晓燕 (傅小兰课题组)
主持人:王莹 副研
报告题目:Which Matters More in Implicit Category Learning: Contour-based Features VS. Surface-based Features
报告摘要:
The exemplars in a category vary along different dimensions, such as shape, color, and direction, which are assumed to contribute equally to the performance. However, it has been demonstrated that contour-based information is more important than surface-based information when classifying natural scenes (Walther & Shen, 2014). To the best of our knowledge, no study has compared the role of contour-based and surface-based features in implicit category learning. To address this question, the present study defined two prototypes by contour-based features and surface-based features separately in a prototype distortion task. In experiment 1, the prototype in one category is defined by three contour-based features, and the other is defined by three corresponding surface-based features. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions. They were asked to rate how likable this stimulus is in the training phase and to classify new stimuli based on what they acquired in the training phase. The defined features of each category were changed from three features to four features in Experiment 2. Moreover, subjects were presented with the stimuli of both two categories of Experiment 2 in the training phase in Experiment 3. The results of Experiments 1 showed that subjects in both conditions performed significantly above chance. More importantly, subjects in the contour-based condition performed better than those in the surface-based condition. The results of Experiment 2 showed that subjects performed significantly above chance only for contour-based category. The results of Experiment 3 showed that people can simultaneously learn the two categories but the learning performance of the contour defined category was significantly higher than the surface defined category. The results provided convergent evidence that people are more efficient in learning of categories defined by contour-based features than those defined by surface-based features, suggesting that contour-based features are more important than surface-based features in implicit category learning.

关键词:contour-based features; surface-based features; implicit category learning

时间:2016年5月24日周二下午13:00-14:00
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:张波 (张弢课题组)
主持人:王莹 副研
报告题目:The Representation of Biological Motion in Caudal STS
报告摘要:
The visual processing of biological motion plays an important role in various activities of daily life. It has been believed that the form and motion information embedded in biological motion are transferred to posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS, a brain area can be selectively activated by biological motion in human beings) via ventral and dorsal visual pathways. In this research, in order to better understand how biological motion is processed, we recorded neural activities in responding to biological motion stimuli from macaque caudal STS, including middle temporal area (MT), medial superior temporal area (MST) and fundus of the superior temporal area (FST), Preliminary results indicate that, comparing to MT, neural activities in MST and FST can better  reflect the rhythm of gait in biological motion, and show higher likelihood to predict the forthcoming gait. These results suggest a functional distinction in caudal STS in representing biological motion.

关键词:biological motion, MT, MST, FST, caudal STS

时间:2016年5月17日周二下午13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:张一文 (左西年课题组)
主持人:严超赣 研究员
报告题目:Local-to-remote cortical connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairments
报告摘要:
Previous studies have demonstrated alterations of both local and remote connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients but rarely in the same group of patients. In the present study, we employed a novel resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) connectome marker, regional functional homogeneity on the two-dimension cortical surface, to detect full-cortex vertex-wise changes of the local rfMRI connectivity in 32 aMCI patients compared with 45 healthy controls. We further took seed-based functional connectivity to explore the remote rfMRI connectivity in aMCI. The results revealed significant lower local connectivity in the default network and higher local connectivity in somatomotor network in aMCI patients. Abnormal remote connectivity relevant to local connectivity was primarily detectable within default network (reduction) as well as attention and somatomotor networks (increment). The abnormal remote (note local) default network connectivity changes were significantly associated with episodic memory performance in patients. These distance-dependent connectivity profiles illustrated a dysfunctional connectomic pattern in aMCI, which is valuable for developing  neuroimaging marker for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease.

关键词:amnestic mild cognitive impairment; functional homogeneity; local connectivity; remote connectivity; resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; default mode network

时间:2016年4月26日周二下午13:00-14:00
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:娄娅 (李兴珊课题组)
主持人:杨晓虹 副研
报告题目: Using support vector machines to identify literacy skills:Evidence from eye movements
报告摘要:
Is inferring readers’ literacy skills possible by analyzing their eye movements during text reading? This study used Support Vector Machines (SVM) to analyze eye movement data from 61 undergraduate students who read a multiple-paragraph, multiple-topic expository text. Forward fixation time, first-pass rereading time, second-pass fixation time, and regression path reading time on different regions of the text were provided as features. The SVM classification algorithm assisted in distinguishing high-literacy-skilled readers from low-literacy-skilled readers with 80.3% accuracy, 84% sensitivity, and 77.8% specificity. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining eye tracking and machine learning techniques to detect readers with low literacy skills, and suggest that such approaches can be potentially used in predicting other cognitive abilities.

关键词:eye movements, literacy skills, support vector machines

时间:2016年4月19日周二下午13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:严超赣 研究院
主持人:左西年 研究员
报告题目:Concordance Among Indices of Intrinsic Brain Function: Inter-Individual Variation and 
     Temporal Dynamics Perspective
报告摘要:
Various resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures have been developed to characterize intrinsic brain activity. While each of these measures has gained a growing presence in the literature, questions remain regarding the common and unique aspects these indices capture. The present work provided a comprehensive examination of inter-individual variation and intra-individual temporal variation for commonly used measures, including fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, regional homegenity, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, network centrality and global signal correlation. Regardless of whether examining intra-individual or inter-individual variation, we found that these definitionally distinct R-fMRI indices tend to exhibit a relatively high degree of covariation. When taken as a measure of intrinsic brain function, inter-individual differences in concordance for R-fMRI indices appeared to be stable, and negatively related to age (i.e., functional concordance among indices decreases with age). To understand the functional significance of concordance, we noted that higher concordance was generally associated with higher strengths of R-fMRI indices, regardless of whether looking through the lens of inter-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance participants) or intra-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance states identified via temporal dynamic analyses) differences. Finally, temporal dynamics analyses also revealed that high concordance states are characterized by increased within-and between-network functional connectivity, suggesting more general variations in network integration and segregation. The current study draws attenion to questions regarding how to select an R-fMRI index for usage in a given study, as well as how to compare findings across studies that examine inter-individual or group differences using different indices. Additionally, our work suggests global neural signals exist in the brain, and their spontaneous variations over time result in fluctuations in the connectedness of brain regions.

关键词:resting-state fMRI; intrinsic brain activity; concordance; temporal dynamics; inter-individual variation

时间:2016年4月12日周二下午13:00-14:00
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:董雪
主持人:席洁
报告题目:Habituation of Visual Adaptation
报告摘要:
Our sensory system adjusts its function driven by both shorter term (e.g. adaptation) and longer term (e.g. learning) experiences. Most past adaptation literature focuses on short term adaptation. Only recently researchers have begun to investigate how adaptation changes over a span of days. This question is important, since in real life many environmental changes stretch over multiple days or longer. However, the answer to the question remains largely unclear. Here we addressed this issue by tracking perceptual bias (also known as aftereffect) induced by motion or contrast adaptation across multiple daily adaptation sessions. Aftereffects were measured every day after adaptation, which corresponded to the degree of adaptation on each day. For passively viewed adapters, repeated adaptation attenuated aftereffects. Once adapters were presented with an attentional task, aftereffects could either reduce for easy tasks, or initially show an increase followed by a later decrease for demanding tasks. Quantitative analysis of the decay rates in contrast adaptation showed that repeated exposure of the adapter appeared to be equivalent to adaptation to a weaker stimulus. These results suggest that both attention and a non attentional  habituation-like mechanism jointly determine how adaptation develops across multiple daily sessions.

关键词:Motion aftereffect; Contrast adaptation; Learning; Attention; Habituation

时间:2016年3月29日周二下午13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人:丁金丰
主持人:李晓庆 副研究员
报告题目:The influence of emotional words on prediction processing during sentence comprehension
报告摘要:
The current study examined the influence of emotionality on the prediction aspect of sentence comprehension. We manipulated the emotionality of verbs (emotional vs. neutral) as well as the predictability of their following neutral nouns (high vs. low) in setences. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to both the verbs and the following nouns. We found that a) the emotional verbs elicited a larger P2 and a larger N400 than the neutral verbs; b) the neutral verbs instead of the emotional verbs elicited a larger N400 and a larger late negativity in the highly predictive sentences than in the lowly predictive sentences; c) the subsequent nouns elicited a larger N400 and a larger P600 in the lowly predictive sentences than in the highly predictive sentences. The ERP results suggest that more resources are allocated to emotional words, which in turn enhances the pre-activaion and maintenance of their following highly predicted words in working memory. Our study shed new light on the interaction between emotion and prediction during language comprehension. The findings provide the first evidence on the arousal-biased competition theory in language domain.

关键词:Emotional words, Prediction, Sentence comprehension, ERPs

时间:2016年3月15日周二下午13:30--14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人: 王迪
主持人: 张兴利 副研究员
报告题目:金钱奖赏和社会奖赏敏感性的发展
报告摘要:
  本研究旨在考察随着年龄增长,个体对金钱奖赏、社会奖赏敏感性的发展。分别以15元现金和荣誉证书表征金钱奖赏和社会奖赏,研究两种奖赏如何影响个体行为,以及个体主观上对两种奖赏物的想要程度。8岁儿童、13岁青少年以及成人被试各30人参加了本实验。采用MID和SID范式,分别记录了被试在两种奖赏的不同奖赏量条件下的选择反应时和错误率数据。实验结束后,被试利用7点量表评定对于两种奖赏物的想要程度。结果显示,个体在金钱奖赏条件下的反应时慢于社会奖赏。并且,奖赏量越大,个体的反应时越短。在8岁儿童组,奖赏对于男孩行为的调节作用低于女孩,但是,在成人组男性对于奖赏的调节更加敏感。在错误率指标上,8岁男孩在社会奖赏条件下,高奖赏比低奖赏和无奖赏有更高的错误率。实验结束后的主观评定显示,8岁儿童、13岁青少年对于社会奖赏的想要程度高于金钱奖赏,成人对于两种奖赏物想要程度无差异。本研究结果表明,金钱奖赏、社会奖赏都能够对个体的行为起到激励作用,其中社会奖赏对于儿童和青少年更有吸引力。奖赏加工能力和主观想要程度存在年龄上的差异,8岁男孩面对自己想要的奖赏物表现出“欲速则不达”的情况。

关键词:金钱奖赏;社会奖赏;奖赏量;主观评定

时间:2016年3月1日周二下午13:30--14:30
地点:心理所南楼五层会议室
报告人: 邓虎
主持人: 王莹 副研究员
报告题目:Perceptual learning refines the representation of heading direction in Macaque VIP
报告摘要:
Our ability of learning to guide one’s self-motion efficiently and stably in the natural environment is essential, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning.Previous studies have pointed out that Ventral Intraparietal area (VIP) could provide useful information for estimating self-motion direction. To investigate whether perceptual learning has consistent influence on macaques’ behavioral performance and responses of neurons in VIP, we recorded the neuronal responses to same heading stimuli before and after training. We found that macaques were capable of making eye movement compensation with/without non-visual cues. Furthermore, monkeys showed the ability to combine two cues together to compensate the retinal flow distortion. Besides the significant improvement of behavior performance, on the neuron level, there were stronger visual responses and shorter latency. Together, our results reveal that perceptual learning can refine the neuronal representation of heading direction in VIP for enabling and facilitating self-motion.

关键词:Perceptual learning, VIP, self-motion, eye movement compensation

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